Basic characteristics of expansions
Any adjacency pair can take expansions, including expansions
Typically no more than two embedded levels (e.g., a repair of a repair)
Do not seem to take pre-expansions, although they can take insert expansions and post-expansions
base pair might not occur after pre-expansion; need to look at how participants orient to it
pre-expansions are often also adjacency pairs
there are type-specific pre-sequences, such as pre-invitations, pre-offers, etc.
pre-sequences project that the base FPP will be produced
asking “Are you doing anything?” usually not asking for a factual account, but a prelude to an invitation
help speaker avoid rejection
can be a way of hedging the potential pre-invitation
some pre-sequences don’t have clear indications of what they are, such as “Guess what?”
transition from pre-sequence to base sequence not always unproblematic
preference for offers over requests
serve as alert to recipients that what is to follow is a telling of news
offer a characterization that sets parameters for recipients’ recognition
give evidence of recency of what is to be reported as evidence of its newsworthiness
make actual telling a contingent step by formulating it as an offer or request, or making recipient-design constraint actionable
commonly involves two forms of SPP: one which registers whether what has been conveyed is news, another which takes up a stance towards the news
ordinarily speakers don’t tell recipient what they already know, unless reminiscing
pre-announcements often start with “Guess/Y’know/Remember” + (what/what/when/where) + more or less detail
the minimal form is “Guess what?”; often deployed as a puzzle or challenge
other forms: “I’ve/we’ve got” + characterization (e.g., “I’ve got good news”)
backwards looking repair sequences
can be initiated in SPP slot, for example:
A: How did it go?
B:--> What do you mean?
common in service encounters where it is used to establish pre-conditions for the encounter, for example:
A Can I get a vodka?
B--> Are you twenty-one?
Minimal post-expansions (sequence-closing thirds)
involves one additional turn to a sequence after the SPP
designed not to project further sequence but the close sequence
found after both preferred and dispreferred SPPs
“oh”: indicates change-of-state from unknowing to knowing (i.e., speaker has gained new information in prior turn)
“okay”: indicates acceptance
assessments: indicates stance towards SPP, e.g., “That’s good” (for more, see “Assessments” page)
Heritage, J. (1984). A change-of-state token and aspects of its sequential placement. In J. M. Atkinson & J. Heritage (Eds.), Structures of social action: Studies in conversation analysis(pp. 299–345). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Schegloff, E. A. (2007). Sequence organization in interaction: A primer in conversation analysis, vol 1. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.